What is the Shari’ah view regarding unchaperoned female Muslims – muslimat – spending nights away from home; on trips with friends or acquaintances; travelling to other cities or countries for business or education? What is the basis of such views – the inclusion of men as well as women in a group, the distance travelled or the time spent away?

There is no general rule. Consideration is given to a female’s youth, maturity, self control, naivety, her being married or single, the importance of the duties she will not be able to undertake while away, if she is travelling for pleasure or education, being with mahram or not. Each circumstance has its own ruling.